FactsFiguresDoors

   IUT definition on Social Housing

   Construction costs in the EU 27 - new residential     
       
buildings

   2010 UN World Population and Housing Census


   EU, Europe:

  • Housing Review 2015, by Habitat for Humanity
    Europe, incl the CEE region and former Soviet republics. pdf
  • Distribution of population by tenure status, type of
    household, and income group. 2002-2011.
    Source: SILC, in Excel

   Statistics from RICS:

   Construction

   Statistics from EU Presidencies:

   VAT rates applicable in EU member States, 2005:


Tenant Law in Europe, 2014/2015

Coordinator of this project is the Centre for European Law and Politics at Bremen University, Germany. The Universities of Delft, Southampton, Lund, Katowice, Celje, Pisa, Tarragona, Tartu and the MRI Budapest are partner institutions.

Summary: My Right as a tenant in Europe pdf (850 pages)


 


   The UN-ECE-region:


 

   The World, except Europe:

 


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   Housing in Europe, various countries

  • England:


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Western Europe
+
USA, Canada, Australia, New Zeeland

For the CEE region, see further down

For more USA Facts & Figures, go to Members USA or
click here for more references.

The rental housing sector stock, % of rental dwellings of total stock   Last update: 2016-02-28   

 
 Country

Total rental < 2000
in %

Total rental 2000 >

of which is Social,
in %

Share of rental flats in major cities, %, various years 98-

 Austria - 42 (-13) 23 (-13) Vienna 78 (-13)
 Belgium 35 - 7 (-04) Brussels 57
 Cyprus - 14 (-01) 0 -
 Denmark* 45 42 (-11)
20 (public, -10)
Copenhagen 48 (-12)
(public: 20, private: 26)
 Finland 34 (-02) 31 (-11) 16 (-11)

Helsinki  47 (-10)

 France 40 (-96) 40 (-13) 17 (-13) Paris: 53
 Germany   55 (-13) 4 (-13) Berlin 86 (-06)
Hamburg 80 (-06)
 Greece 20 (-94) 22 (-11) no social sector

Athens ~27 (-01)

 Iceland 14 (-00) 4 (-00)  
 Ireland 20(-91) 30 (-11)

 8 (-11)

Dublin 34 (-11)
 Italy 25 (-90) 21 (-06) 8 (-05) -
 Luxembourg - 30 (-09) 1,5 (-05) -
 Malta - 22 (-05) - -
 The Netherlands 48 (-99) 40 (-12) 32 (-12) Amsterdam 71 (-14)
 Norway 24 23 (-11) 4 (-11) Oslo 31 (-11)
 Portugal 28 20 (-11) 2 (-11) -
 Spain 14 13 (-08) 2 (-08)

Madrid 18 (-01
Barcelona 30 (-96)

 Sweden * 40 37 (-10) 17 (public, -10) Stockholm 42 (-14)
 Switzerland 69 60 (-13) 14 Geneva 83 (-13)
(social 15 %)
 U.K. England - 37 (-14) 17 (-14) London 44 (-06)
(social: 24, private: 19)
 U.K. Scotland 42 (-13) 24 (-13)
 U.K. N.Ireland   33 (-06) 17 (-08) -
 UK, Wales - 30 (-11) 16 (-11) Cardiff 18 (-09)
 
 USA

36 % (1994)
32 % (-00)
30 % (-06)
32 % (-08)
34 % (-11)
35 % (-12)

 

3 % (-09)

New York City 65 (-11)
Chicago 55 (-10)
Los Angeles 62 (-10)

San-Francisco 62 (-10)

 Canada

36 %  (-99)
35 %  (-02)
31 % (-06)

 

6 %

Toronto: 37 (-06)
Quèbec: 40 % (-06)
Montréal: 50 % (-01)

 Australia 28 % -06
30 % -11
(% of Australian households)
  4,5 % (-11)

VIC: 23 (-02)
ACT, Canberra: 37 (-99)
NSW: 28,5 (-06)
QUE: 30 (-06)

 New Zeeland 26 % (-91)
29 % (-96)
33 % -(-06)
  5 %  Christchurch: ~30 (-02)

 

Remarks:
*Denmark, Sweden: Public housing: "social" housing open to all residents, irrespective of income.


Sources:
Australia: www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/home/factsheetshtdc?opendocument&navpos=450
Rental and social sector 2011: AIHW gov. report Housing Assistance in Australia Oct. 2014.
ACT: Australian Bureau of Statistics Housing Survey 1999.
Queensland, on social housing:
Housing and Community Research Unit, School of Sociology and Social Work, UTAS 2008.
Queensland on % renters, Census 2006 Queensland Gov.

Austria:
Wohnen, Zahlen, Daten und Indikatoren der Wohnstatistik 2013, Statistik Austria, Mikrozensus 2013, page 23-24. .
Canada: Statistics Canada, Census 2006. Toronto, Vancouver, Montréal: Census of Canada 2001
Cyprus: 2001 Census
Denmark: Denmark: BL Copenhagen. Copenhagen figures: City of Copenhagen,
2012
Finland
: Statistics Finland (for 2010), CECODHAS Housing
Review 2012 (for 2008)
France, INSEE France, 2006.
Germany:
2011 Population and Housing census, Destatis, Fachkommission wohnungsbauförderung/SuBVE Bremen.  
Greece: Census 2011, Hellenic Statistical Authority, September  2014
Iceland: Martti Lujanen, Housing and Housing Policy in the Nordic countries, 2004.
Ireland: Census 2011, Report; The roof over our heads, profile 4
Italy: Ministry of Infrastructure, Italy, 2006.
Luxembourg:
2009, Ministere du Logement, Observatoire de l´Habitat 2011
Malta: Population and Housing Statistics, 2005
Netherlands: 2010; Towards a sustainable private rented sector, LSE 2011.  2007:Dutch Ministry of Housing, VROM. Amsterdam: City of Amsterdam.
New Zeelan
d:
www.stats.govt.nz. Centre for Housing Research (2006)
Norway:
Statistics Norway, 2011
Portugal: Census 2011, Statistics Portugal. Social housing: The state of housing in the EU, 2015

Spain: Figures for 2008, and Madrid 2001, from “Social Housing & City, EU 2010” Ministerio de Vivienda, Gov. of Spain
Sweden:
2010: from Statistics (SCB) Sweden. For Stockholm: SCB 2014
Switzerland: Federal Office for Housing, Housing bulletin, 2006
U.K. Northern Ireland: Housing Executive
Northern Ireland "Housing Market Review and Perspectives 2009-2012". (5,5 % vacant dwellings 2006).
U.K. England: English Housing Survey 2013/14, DCLG. For London: Greater London Authority, GLA, 2009

U.K. Scotland: www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Housing-Regeneration/HSfS/KeyInfoTables

U.K. Wales: Welsh gov. Statistics from Wales, February 2012.
USA, National figures: US Census Bureau (-11), New York (-11): NYC Housing and Vacancy Survey. Other US cities from Housing Characteristics US Census Bureau 2010.


*1: Sweden has no social housing. Public housing consists of about 300 municipally owned housing companies, which dwellings are open to anyone, irrespective of income. Priority via time in housing queue, and priority needs.


 

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   Central and East Europe (CEE-region) and Central Asia

 The share of the rental sector in 1990 >
(In % of the total housing stock),
red: last available figure.
NB; Figures are official figures. Data for non-official privately rented dwellings are not available

Country

1990

1994

1998

1999

2001

2002 2003 >
Albania

-

-

5 *15

-

2 *15

-

 
Armenia

49

-

-

-

4 *19

-

 
Belarus 46 - - - - - 16 *23
(-08)
Azerbaijan *31             11 (-08)
Bulgaria

7

6

-

7

-

3,5 *20

 
Croatia

26

11

10 *8

10 *8

10 *8

-

 
Czech Rep

59 *2

57 *2

55 *2

-

57 *12

-

18 *28
(-11?)
Estonia

-

71

10

7

5

-

 
Georgia *24 - - - - ~10   5 (-04)
Hungary

22

13

 

 

 

-

8 *1
Kyrgyzstan *30             4 (-10)
Latvia

64

54

51

38 (-00)*7

-

25 *7

21 *25
Lithuania

51

13

5

3

2,5 *5

   
Macedonia FYR

-

-

-

-

2,5 *18

-

 
Moldova

71(-92) *4

64 *4

-

10 (-00)

6

-

 
Montenegro             2 *32
Poland *11

56

56

48

46

-

25 *13

24 *26
Romania

33 *3

8

-

5 *3

3 *16

   
Russia

67*17

50

41

-

37 *17

-

30 *17
(-06)
Serbia, *32
incl. Montenegro

33 (-91)

-

-

-

-

2

 
Slovakia *6

21 (-91)

-

28 *2

-

8

-

3 *27
(-06)

Slovenia

33 (-91)

18 (-93)

12 (-96)

12*14

-

9 *22

 
Ukraine             13 *33
(~12)
Turkey

-

-

-

-

36 *21

-

 
- = not available

*1 : Hungary: 1990: Hungarian Tenants Assoc., LABE.
8 % reported in 2011, by Lea Kőszeghy advocacy officer Habitat for Humanity. 4 % public and 4 % private rentals.
*2 Czech Rep. Institute of Sociology, Prague. Social Housing in Europe 2000,Figures include co-operatives: Czech Rep; -90: 20%, -98: 23%, (Most co-operatives had by 1995 been privatised in the Czech Rep.)
*3 Romania: UN-ECE 2001, Country Profiles on the Housing Sector.
*4 Moldova: 2001: Ministry of Public Works, Reconstruction and Construction (96% private - 4% public sector)
*5 Lithuania: Ministry of the Environment, Vilnius.
*6 Slovakia: Co-operative dwellings 1991: 22 %, 2001: 15 %, (
ownership 2001: 75 %): K. Ivanička / A. Elbers
2006 figure from
Ministry of Construction and Regional Development, Bratislava 2008
*7 Latvia: Census 2000, www.csb.lv. 2002: OECD / Min. of Economics of the Rep of Latvia.
*8 Croatian Union of Tenants.
*9 Slovenia: Faculty of Economics and Institute for Economic Research
*10
*11 Poland: State office for Housing and Urban Dev. / Info. Bulletin 2001. Figures incl. co-operatives.
*12 Czech statistical office, Census 2001.
*13 Source see below*. 25 % rental of which 9 % co-operative rental, 11,5 % from municipalities, 1,5 % from State treasury, 2 % from employers, 1 % others.
*14 Slovenia: for 2000, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning.
*15 Albania:1998: UN-ECE Country Profiles on the Housing Sector, Albania. 2001: Ministry of Territory Planning and Tourism, Tirana
*16 Romania: Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Housing, Bucharest
*17 Russia: 2001:Gosstroy of Russia (UN-ECE –02), 2002:UN ECE
Country Profiles on the Housing Sector 2004.
2006 figure: Federal’naia sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki. (Federal Service of State Statistics). 1990 figure: Source: Berezin et. al. 1996, 84. (from R. Vihavainen; Homeowners’ Associations in Russia after the 2005 Housing Reform, 2009.)
*18 FYR Macedonia: Habitat National report, 2001
*19 Armenia: UN-ECE 2004: Country Profiles on the Housing Sector.
*20 Bulgaria: Reg. National Reports on Housing Developments in European Countries, 2004.
*21 Turkey, for 2000. 36 % of which 27 % is rented, 7,5 % rent free, 1,5% gov. owned.
*22 Slovenia: 6 % gov.or local auth. rental, 0,5 social, 2,5 private rental.
*23 Belarus:
UN-ECE Country Profiles on the Housing Sector, 2008
*24 Georgia: UN-ECE Country Profiles on the Housing Sector, 2007
*25 Latvia: Housing Statistics in the EU, 2004.
*26 Poland: Housing Statistics in the EU, 2004
*27 Slovakia; Housing Statistics in the EU, 2004
*28 Czech Rep. D. Grabmüllerova, PP presentation 2012 (co-ops:11%, family houses: 37%, condos: 11%, others: 7%)
*30 Kyrgyzstan: Country Profiles on the Housing Sector, UN ECE 2010
*31 Azerbaijan: Country Profiles on the Housing Sector, UN ECE 2010
*32 Montenegro: National Action Plan of Montenegro for energy efficiency, UN ECE project report 001/2012.
*33 Ukraine: UN ECE Country Report, 2013


Bosnia-Herzegovina,
1991 census: 20% state owned housing, 80% privately owned

*13, 21, 22: Reg. National Reports on Housing Developments in European Countries, 2004: Department of the Environment. , Heritage and Local Government. Rep. of Ireland. In cooperation with The Housing Unit, Dublin.

 

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   Housing in USA

Homeownership in the USA
 Rates by Race and Ethnicity of Householder

 

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2002

U.S. total

64.0

64.7

65.4

65.7

66.3

66.8

67.4

67.9

White, total

67.7

68.7

69.1

69.3

70.0

70.5

71.1

71.8

  White, non-Hispanic

70.0

70.9

71.7

72.0

72.6

73.2

73.8

74.5

Black, total

42.3

42.7

44.1

44.8

45.6

46.3

47.2

47.3

Other race1

47.7

47.2

51.0

52.5

53.0

53.7

53.5

54.7

American Indian, Aleut, Eskimo

51.7

55.8

51.6

51.7

54.3

56.1

56.2

54.6

  Asian or Pacific Islander

51.3

50.8

50.8

52.8

52.6

53.1

52.8

54.7

  Other

36.1

37.4

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Hispanic

41.2

42.1

42.8

43.3

44.7

45.5

46.3

48.2

Non-Hispanic

65.9

66.7

67.4

67.8

68.3

68.9

69.5

70.0

 

NOTE: n.a. = not applicable.

1. Beginning in 1996, those answering “other” for race were allocated to one of the 4 race categories—white, black, American Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo (one category), or Asian or Pacific Islander.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Web: www.census.gov.

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Housing in Asia
 
See also IUT Members Asia

China, Peoples's Republic
 

Dubai

  • About tenant´s rights, and Rental Dispute Settlements Centre pdf


     

Hong Kong

 

India

  • Article in Global Tenant, April 2013 pdf
  • About rental housing in Mumbai, 2103 pdf

 

Israel

 

Korea

  • Korea´s dysfunctional housing market, Jan. 2014 pdf
  • Seoul searching, from Inside Housing Nov. 2013 pdf
  • About 'housing in Korea' Global Tenant 2005 pdf

 

Lebanon

  • Characteristics of Housing and Households pdf

 

Nepal

  • Housing census 2012/2013 pdf

 


Malaysia



Singapore

 

South Korea

 

Taiwan



Vietnam


 

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Japan

 


                                   

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Housing and Young Adults

 In the media:

 

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International Union of Tenants

Tenants United - participation across borders